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Graduate School of Education

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The references which comprise this part of the project have been divided into 13 libraries.

These are a significant cross-section of the literature on the involvement of Australian universities in offshore education.


All universities are involved to some degree in international activities, with such activities being addressed using various terms including ‘international’, ‘internationalisation’, ‘transnational’, and ‘offshore’. Various definitions of these terms are put forward from time to time.

For example in 1997, The Global Alliance for Transnational Education describes transnational education as follows:

Transnational education … denotes any teaching or learning activity in which the students are in a different country (the host country) to that in which the institution providing the education is based (the home country). This situation requires that national boundaries be crossed by information about the education, and by staff and/or educational materials.

Furthermore, among the various terms, those of ‘transnational’; and ‘offshore’ tend to be used most often in the Australian literature.


The featured libraries reflect not only the importance of internationalisation generally to Australian universities, but also its importance as a world-wide phenomenon, with considerable competition between countries and individual universities. At the time of compilation, the material in the libraries was the most up-to-date available.

The libraries are arranged alphabetically as follows: